The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology Patient Engagement Playbook

References

Introduction

1Gruessner, V. (n.d.) Three Vendors are Driving Patient Engagement and Portal Use. EHR Intelligence. Retrieved from https://ehrintelligence.com/news/three-vendors-are-driving-patient-engagement-and-portal-use

2Black Book Research (2018, April 20). Hospital Technology is the New Determiner of Patient Satisfaction, 2018 Black Book EHR User Survey Results. PR Newswire. Retrieved from https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/hospital-technology-is-the-new-determiner-of-patient-satisfaction-2018-black-book-ehr-user-survey-results-300633556.html

3Patel V & Johnson C. (February 2018). Consumers' use of online medical records and devices for health needs. ONC Data Brief, no.40. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/page/2018-03/HINTS-2017-Consumer-Data-Brief-3.21.18.pdf [PDF - 1.7 MB]

4 The long awaited end of meaningful use. Definitive Healthcare. (2016, January 19). Retrieved from http://www.definitivehc.com/hospital-information-technology/medicare-meaningful-use-program?source=newsltr-blog&utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=02-02-16

5 EHR Incentives & Certification: Meaningful use definition & objectives. (2015, February 6). Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/meaningful-use-definition-objectives

6 Emont, S. (2011, May). Measuring the impact of patient portals: what the literature tells us. Retrieved from https://www.chcf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/PDF-MeasuringImpactPatientPortals.pdf [PDF – 610KB]

7 Patient access to online health action plans enhances rate of preventive care. (2016, February 9). Retrieved from http://share.kaiserpermanente.org/article/patient-access-to-online-health-action-plans-enhances-rate-of-preventive-care/; http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797%2815%2900780-1/abstract

8 Emont, S. (2011, May). Measuring the impact of patient portals: what the literature tells us. Retrieved from https://www.chcf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/PDF-MeasuringImpactPatientPortals.pdf [PDF – 610KB]

Chapter 1

9 Goel, M.S.; Brown, T.L.; Williams, A.; Cooper, A.J.; Baker, D.W. (2011). Patient-reported barriers to enrolling in a patient portal. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 18(1), i8-i12. doi: 10.1136. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/jamia/article/18/Supplement_1/i8/798747?searchresult=1

10 Clain, D. (2015, July 30). athenaResearch Study: the current state of patient portal adoption. Retrieved from http://www.athenahealth.com/blog/2015/07/30/athenaresearch-study-the-current-state-of-patient-portal-adoption

11 Siddhanti, R. Mana Health. (Personal communication, 2016, February 11).

12 ManaPortal signup process and screenshots: Siddhanti, R. Mana Health. (Personal communication, 2016, February 19).

13 Friedman, R. (2015, August 3). How practices get patients to use their portals. Call-out box Retrieved from https://www.advisory.com/research/medical-group-strategy-council/practice-notes/2015/august/what-we-know-about-portal-adoption-part-2

14 Clain, D. (2015, July 30). athenaResearch Study: the current state of patient portal adoption. Retrieved from http://www.athenahealth.com/blog/2015/07/30/athenaresearch-study-the-current-state-of-patient-portal-adoption

15 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3041333/

16 Patel V & Johnson C. (February 2018). Consumers' use of online medical records and devices for health needs. ONC Data Brief, no.40. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/page/2018-03/HINTS-2017-Consumer-Data-Brief-3.21.18.pdf [PDF - 1.7 MB]

17 About Blue Button. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/patients-families/blue-button/about-blue-button

18 Henry, J.; Pylypchuk, Y.; Patel, V. Electronic Capabilities for Patient Engagement among U.S. Non-Federal Acute Care Hospitals: 2012–2015. (No. 38, September 2016). Retrieved from http://dashboard.healthit.gov/evaluations/data-briefs/hospitals-patient-engagement-electronic-capabilities-2015.php

19 Patel, V.; Barker, W.; Siminerio, E. Trends in Consumer Access and Use of Electronic Health Information. (No. 30, October 2015). Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/briefs/oncdatabrief30_accesstrends_.pdf [PDF - 2.1 MB]

20 Charles, D.; Gabriel, M.; Henry, J. Electronic Capabilities for Patient Engagement among U.S. Non-Federal Acute Care Hospitals: 2012–2014 (No. 29, October 2015). Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/briefs/oncdatabrief29_patientengagement.pdf [PDF - 1.9 MB]

21 Strategies for improving patient engagement through health IT. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/final_vdt_sect_508_tested.pdf [PDF – 2.6MB]

Chapter 2

22 DelVecchio, A. (2014, December 16). Expansion of online appointment scheduling could lead to cost savings. Retrieved from http://searchhealthit.techtarget.com/blog/Health-IT-Pulse/Expansion-of-online-appointment-scheduling-could-lead-to-cost-savings

23 Patient Engagement: Digital self-scheduling set to explode. Retrieved from https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insight-patient-engagement-digital-self-scheduling-explode

24 Patel V & Johnson C. (February 2018). Consumers' use of online medical records and devices for health needs. ONC Data Brief, no.40. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/page/2018-03/HINTS-2017-Consumer-Data-Brief-3.21.18.pdf [PDF - 1.7 MB]

25 Kaiser Permanente 2014 Annual Report. Retrieved from http://share.kaiserpermanente.org/static/kp_annualreport_2014/

26 Timely access to scheduled appointments. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 5(1), 104-111. Retrieved from https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org/health/care/consumer/…/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/

27 Timely access to scheduled appointments. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 5(1), 104-111. Retrieved from https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org/health/care/consumer/…/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/

28 Use Secure Electronic Messaging. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/achieve-meaningful-use/core-measures-2/use-secure-electronic-messaging

29 Kane, B., Sands, D.Z. (1998, January 1). Guidelines for the clinical use of electronic mail with patients. Retrieved from http://jamia.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/104

30 Kane, B., Sands, D.Z. (1998, January 1). Guidelines for the clinical use of electronic mail with patients. Retrieved from http://jamia.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/104

31 Fact Sheet: Using Secure Electronic Messaging to Support Patient and Family Engagement. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/implementation-resources/fact-sheet-using-secure-electronic-messaging

32 Meaningful Use Case Studies: Patient portal increases communication between patients and providers. (2011, Spring). Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/blackstone-valley-community-health-care-case-study

33 Kane, B., Sands, D.Z. (1998, January 1). Guidelines for the clinical use of electronic mail with patients. Retrieved from http://jamia.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/104

34 Kane, B., Sands, D.Z. (1998, January 1). Guidelines for the clinical use of electronic mail with patients. Retrieved from http://jamia.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/104

35 Fact Sheet: Using Secure Electronic Messaging to Support Patient and Family Engagement. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/implementation-resources/fact-sheet-using-secure-electronic-messaging

36 Silvestre, A.-L.; Sue, V.M.; Allen, J.Y. (2009, March/April). If you build it, will they come? The Kaiser Permanente model of online health care. Health Affairs, 28(2), 334-344. doi 10.1377/hithaff.28.2.334. Retrieved from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/28/2/334.full

37 Emont, S. (2011, May). Measuring the impact of patient portals: what the literature tells us. Retrieved from https://www.chcf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/PDF-MeasuringImpactPatientPortals.pdf [PDF – 610KB]

38 Meaningful Use Case Studies: Patient portal benefits patient care and provider workflow. (2011, Winter). Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/case-study/patient-portal-benefits-patient-care-and-provider-workflow

39 Kessels, R.P.C. (2003, May). Patients’ memory for medical information. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96(5), 219-222. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC539473/

40 OpenNotes: Inviting patients to read their doctors’ visit notes. Retrieved from https://www.opennotes.org/research/inviting-patients-to-read-their-doctors-notes-patients-and-doctors-look-ahead-patient-and-physician-surveys/

41 OpenNotes: Inviting patients to read their doctors’ visit notes. Retrieved from https://www.opennotes.org/research/inviting-patients-to-read-their-doctors-notes-patients-and-doctors-look-ahead-patient-and-physician-surveys/

42 Siminerio, E.; Daniel, J.G. (2014, June 24). Patients play a vital role in improving the quality of information in their medical records. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/buzz-blog/consumer/blue-button-helps-patients-improve-care-quality/

43 Delbanco, T.; Walker, J.; Bell, S.K.; Darer, J.D.; Elmore, J.G.; Farag, N.; Feldman, H.J.; Mejilla, R.; Ngo, L.; Ralston, J.D.; Ross, S.E.; Trivedi, N.; Vodicka, E.; Leveille, S.G. (2012, October 2). Annals of Internal Medicine, 157(7), 461-470. Retrieved from http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=1363511

44 What is OpenNotes? Retrieved from http://www.opennotes.org/about-opennotes/

45 Unitan, R. and Seidel, M. Sharing Visit Notes Online: Kaiser Permanente Northwest’s Big Bang Implementation of OpenNotes. (PowerPoint presentation, 2015, September 2). Retrieved from Kaiser Permanente Northwest.

46 Unitan, R. and Seidel, M. Sharing Visit Notes Online: Kaiser Permanente Northwest’s Big Bang Implementation of OpenNotes. (PowerPoint presentation, 2015, September 2). Retrieved from Kaiser Permanente Northwest.

47 Alpert J.M., Krist A.H., Aycock R.A., Kreps G.L. (2016, May 17). Applying Multiple Methods to Comprehensively Evaluate a Patient Portal’s Effectiveness to Convey Information to Patients. Retrieved from http://www.jmir.org

Chapter 3

48 Patel V & Johnson C. (February 2018). Consumers' use of online medical records and devices for health needs. ONC Data Brief, no.40. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/page/2018-03/HINTS-2017-Consumer-Data-Brief-3.21.18.pdf [PDF - 1.7 MB]

49 Wolff J.L., Darer J.D., Larsen K.L. Family Caregivers and Consumer Health Information Technology. J Gen Intern Med. 2016 Jan;31(1):117-21. doi: 10.1007/s11606-015-3494-0

50 Bourgeois, F.C.; Taylor, P.L.; Emans, J.; Nigrin, D.J.; Mandl, K.D. (2008, December). Whose personal control? Creating private, personally controlled health records for pediatric and adolescent patients. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 15(6), 737–743. doi 10:1197/jamia.M2865. Retrieved from http://www.hl7.org/documentcenter/public_temp_7CA39230-1C23-BA17-0CBCDEB8D0B8876C/wg/pedsdata/Fabienne%20JAMIA%20paper%20(2).pdf [PDF – 78KB]

51 Bourgeois, F.C.; Nigrin, D.J.; Harper, M.B. (2015, May). Pediatrics perspectives. Preserving patient privacy and confidentiality in the era of personal health records. Journal of Adolescent Health, 135(5), e1125-e1127. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/135/5/e1125

52 Jasik, C. (2005, February). UCSF goes live with teen patient portal. Retrieved from https://www.ucsfhealth.org/ucsfmychart/

53 Retrieved from https://www.coloradohealth.org/portal-support-non-english-speaking-patients

Chapter 4

54Patel V & Johnson C. (February 2018). Consumers' use of online medical records and devices for health needs. ONC Data Brief, no.40. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/page/2018-03/HINTS-2017-Consumer-Data-Brief-3.21.18.pdf [PDF - 1.7 MB]

55 HIM Body of Knowledge™. Retrieved from http://bok.ahima.org/

56 45 Code of Federal Regulations 164.502(g). Cornell University Legal Information Institute. Uses and disclosures of protected health information: general rules. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/45/164.502

57 Wolff J.L., Darer J.D., Larsen K.L. Family Caregivers and Consumer Health Information Technology. J Gen Intern Med. 2016 Jan;31(1):117-21. doi: 10.1007/s11606-015-3494-0

58 45 Code of Federal Regulations 164.510(b). Cornell University Legal Information Institute. Uses and disclosures requiring an opportunity for the individual to agree or to object. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/45/164.510

59 45 Code of Federal Regulations 164.510(b). Cornell University Legal Information Institute. Uses and disclosures requiring an opportunity for the individual to agree or to object. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/45/164.510

60 Wolff J.L., Kim V.S., Mintz S., Stametz R., Griffin J.M. An environmental scan of shared access to patient portals. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017 Aug 25. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocx088

61 Wolff J.L., Darer J.D., Larsen K.L. Family Caregivers and Consumer Health Information Technology. J Gen Intern Med. 2016 Jan;31(1):117-21. doi: 10.1007/s11606-015-3494-0

62 Wolff J.L., Kim V.S., Mintz S., Stametz R., Griffin J.M. An environmental scan of shared access to patient portals. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017 Aug 25. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocx088

63 Retrieved from http://www.ajmc.com/journals/issue/2016/2016-vol22-n6/development-of-a-tethered-personal-health-record-framework-for-early-end-of-life-discussions

64 Retrieved from https://patientengagementhit.com/news/how-patient-portals-can-improve-advance-care-planning-talks

Chapter 5

65 Patel V & Johnson C. (February 2018). Consumers' use of online medical records and devices for health needs. ONC Data Brief, no.40. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/page/2018-03/HINTS-2017-Consumer-Data-Brief-3.21.18.pdf [PDF - 1.7 MB]

66 Patel V & Johnson C. (February 2018). Consumers' use of online medical records and devices for health needs. ONC Data Brief, no.40. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/page/2018-03/HINTS-2017-Consumer-Data-Brief-3.21.18.pdf [PDF - 1.7 MB]

67 Patient-Generated Health Data. (2015, September 30). Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/policy-researchers-implementers/patient-generated-health-data

68 National Learning Consortium. (2014, March). Patient-Generated Health Data Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/patient_generated_data_factsheet.pdf [PDF – 1.6MB]

69 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2016, April). Readmissions Reduction Program. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/medicare/medicare-fee-for-service-payment/acuteinpatientpps/readmissions-reduction-program.html

70 The Digital Consumer: How Patient Generated Health Data and Health IT Can Help Improve Care. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/buzz-blog/consumer/digital-consumer-patient-generated-health-data-improve-care/

71 National Learning Consortium. (2014, March). Patient-Generated Health Data Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/patient_generated_data_factsheet.pdf [PDF – 1.6MB]

72 Lavallee, D.; Chenok, K.; Love, R.; Petersen, C.; Holve, E.; Segal, C.; and Franklin, P. (2016). Incorporating Patient-Reported Outcomes Into Health Care to Engage Patients and Enhance Care. Health Affairs, 35(4), doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1362. Retrieved from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/35/4/575.full?ijkey=6C1y7.jaIT7qU&keytype=ref&siteid=healthaff#aff-1

73 National Learning Consortium. (2014, March). Patient-Generated Health Data Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/patient_generated_data_factsheet.pdf [PDF – 1.6MB]

74 Ochsner Health System first epic client to fully integrate with Apple HealthKit Call-out box: Retrieved from https://news.ochsner.org/news-releases/ochsner-health-system-first-epic-client-to-fully-integrate-with-apple-healt

75 Develop health and fitness apps that work together. Retrieved from https://developer.apple.com/healthkit/

76 Nield, D. (2016, April 27). 25 essential fitness apps that work with Apple Health: updated Apple Health compatible apps and devices for complete health tracking. Retrieved from http://www.wareable.com/sport/apps-that-work-with-apple-health-kit-compatible

77 Ochsner Health System first epic client to fully integrate with Apple HealthKit Call-out box: Retrieved from https://news.ochsner.org/news-releases/ochsner-health-system-first-epic-client-to-fully-integrate-with-apple-healt

78 Ochsner Health system first in nation to manage chronic diseases with Apple Watch. (2014). Retrieved from https://news.ochsner.org/news-releases/ochsner-health-system-first-in-nation-to-manage-chronic-diseases-with-apple

79 Ochsner Health System continues to transform healthcare with “Optimal Hospital”: innovative program uses Apple Watch, iPad and iPhone to introduce a new model for care as a way to manage efficiencies in hospital care. (2016, February 24). Retrieved from https://news.ochsner.org/news-releases/ochsner-health-system-continues-to-transform-healthcare-with-optimal-hospit

80 Access to MyCarolinas is easy. (2016) Retrieved from https://my.carolinashealthcare.org/login.aspx?ReturnUrl=%2fdefault.aspx

81 Carolinas HealthCare System. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/carolinas_healthcare_commitment.pdf [PDF – 153KB]

82 Broderick, A. (2013, January). Case Studies in Telehealth Adoption. Partners HealthCare: connecting heart failure patients to providers through remote monitoring. Commonwealth Fund Publication 1656, 3. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/case-study/2013/jan/1656_broderick_telehealth_adoption_partners_case_study.pdf [PDF – 610KB]

83 Remote monitoring program for heart failure patients significantly lowers hospital admissions: less intensive remote monitoring follow-up may improve long-term outcomes. (2015, May 13). Retrieved from http://connectedhealth.partners.org/news-and-events/media-center/announcements/heart-failure-remote-monitoring-program-significantly-lowers-hospital-admissions.aspx

84 Agboola, S.; Jethwani, K.; Khateeb, K.; Moore, S.; Kvedar, J. (2015). Heart failure remote monitoring: Evidence from the retrospective evaluation of a real-world remote monitoring program. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(4), e101. doi:10.2196/jmir.4417. Retrieved from http://www.jmir.org/2015/4/e101

85 Broderick, A. (2013, January). Case Studies in Telehealth Adoption. Partners HealthCare: connecting heart failure patients to providers through remote monitoring. Commonwealth Fund Publication 1656, 3. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/case-study/2013/jan/1656_broderick_telehealth_adoption_partners_case_study.pdf [PDF – 610KB]

86 Agboola, S.; Jethwani, K.; Khateeb, K.; Moore, S.; Kvedar, J. (2015). Heart failure remote monitoring: Evidence from the retrospective evaluation of a real-world remote monitoring program. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(4), e101. doi:10.2196/jmir.4417. Retrieved from http://www.jmir.org/2015/4/e101

87 Remote monitoring program for heart failure patients significantly lowers hospital admissions: less intensive remote monitoring follow-up may improve long-term outcomes. (2015, May 13). Retrieved from http://connectedhealth.partners.org/news-and-events/media-center/announcements/heart-failure-remote-monitoring-program-significantly-lowers-hospital-admissions.aspx

88 Broderick, A. (2013, January). Case Studies in Telehealth Adoption. Partners HealthCare: connecting heart failure patients to providers through remote monitoring. Commonwealth Fund Publication 1656, 3. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/case-study/2013/jan/1656_broderick_telehealth_adoption_partners_case_study.pdf [PDF – 610KB]

89 Broderick, A. (2013, January). Case Studies in Telehealth Adoption. Partners HealthCare: connecting heart failure patients to providers through remote monitoring. Commonwealth Fund Publication 1656, 3. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/case-study/2013/jan/1656_broderick_telehealth_adoption_partners_case_study.pdf [PDF – 610KB]

90 Broderick, A. (2013, January). Case Studies in Telehealth Adoption. Partners HealthCare: connecting heart failure patients to providers through remote monitoring. Commonwealth Fund Publication 1656, 3. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/case-study/2013/jan/1656_broderick_telehealth_adoption_partners_case_study.pdf [PDF – 610KB]

91 Orlando, L.A.; Hauser, E.R.; Christianson, C.; Powell, K.P.; Buchanan, A.H.; Chesnut, B.; Agbaje, A.B.; Henrich, V.C.; Ginsburg, G. (2011, October 11). Protocol for implementation of family health history collection and decision support into primary care using a computerized family health history system. BMC Health Services Research 11, 264. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-264. Retrieved from http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-11-264

92 Orlando, L.A.; Hauser, E.R.; Christianson, C.; Powell, K.P.; Buchanan, A.H.; Chesnut, B.; Agbaje, A.B.; Henrich, V.C.; Ginsburg, G. (2011, October 11). Protocol for implementation of family health history collection and decision support into primary care using a computerized family health history system. BMC Health Services Research 11, 264. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-264. Retrieved from http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-11-264

93 Orlando, L.A.; Hauser, E.R.; Christianson, C.; Powell, K.P.; Buchanan, A.H.; Chesnut, B.; Agbaje, A.B.; Henrich, V.C.; Ginsburg, G. (2011, October 11). Protocol for implementation of family health history collection and decision support into primary care using a computerized family health history system. BMC Health Services Research 11, 264. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-264. Retrieved from http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-11-264

94 Wu, R.R.; Himmel, T.L.; Buchanan, A.H.; Powell, K.P.; Hauser, E.R.; Ginsburg, G.S.; Henrich, V.C.; Orlando, L.A. (2014, February 13). Quality of family history collection with use of a patient facing family history assessment tool. doi: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-31. Retrieved from https://bmcfampract.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2296-15-31

95 Orlando, L.A.; Hauser, E.R.; Christianson, C.; Powell, K.P.; Buchanan, A.H.; Chesnut, B.; Agbaje, A.B.; Henrich, V.C.; Ginsburg, G. (2011, October 11). Protocol for implementation of family health history collection and decision support into primary care using a computerized family health history system. BMC Health Services Research 11, 264. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-264. Retrieved from http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-11-264

96 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources overview. Retrieved from https://www.hl7.org/fhir/overview.html

97 Time to focus on your family tree. (2015, December 15). Call-out box: Retrieved from https://today.duke.edu/2015/12/metree

Chapter 6

98 Pew Research Center (February 2018). Mobile Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/mobile/

99 Comstock, Jonah (2013, October 24). Digitas Health: Patients whose doctors use apps use more apps themselves. MobiHealthNews. Retrieved from https://www.mobihealthnews.com/26642/digitas-patients-whose-doctors-use-apps-use-more-apps-themselves

100 Groshek, M. R., Oldenburg, J., Sarasohn-Kahn, J., & Sitler, B. (2015, February 20). mHealth App Essentials: Patient Engagement, Considerations, and Implementation. Retrieved from https://www.himss.org/mhealth-app-essentials-patient-engagement-considerations-and-implementation

101 Byambasuren, O., Sanders, S., Beller, E., & Glasziou, P., (2018, May 9). Prescribable mHealth apps identified from an overview of systematic reviews. npj Digital Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41746-018-0021-9

102 Boudreaux, E. D., Waring, M. E., Hayes, R. B., Sadasivan, R. S., Mullen, S., & Pagoto, S. (2014, September 24). Evaluating and selecting mobile health apps: strategies for healthcare providers and healthcare organizations. Translational Behavioral Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4286553/